Friday, September 30, 2016

Classification Of Robotics

As Mentioned, robotics can be classified into the following:

1. Robotic Manipulator
2. Wheeled Mobile Robots (WMR)
3. Legged Robots
4. Underwater Robots and Flying Robots
5. Robot Vision
6. Artificial Intelligence
7. Industrial Automation

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1. Robotic Arms
Robotic arms have become useful and economical tools in manufacturing, medicine, and other industries.

2. Wheeled Mobile Robots
Wheeled mobile robots perform many tasks in industry and in the military.

3. Legged Robots
Lecomotion on the ground can be realized with tree different basic mechanisms:
i.   Slider
ii.  Liver, and
iii. Wheel or track

Out of the above three mechanisms, the first two are walking mechanisms, and in these cases the robot moves on legs. So many robots have been designed that follow the walking mechanism. Walking mechanisms have their own advantages and they become more reasonable when moving on soft, uneven terrains.

The benefits that can be obtained with a legged robot are:
- Better mobility
- Better stability on the platform
- Better energy efficiency
- Smaller impact on the ground

When choosing the mechanism for locomation of a robot, one needs to keep his eyes on the following factors:
- Terrain on which the robot mainly moves
- Operational flexibility needed when working
- Power and/or energy efficiency requirements
- Payload capacity requirements
- Stability
- Impact on the environment

In walking robots, the balance of the body is of prime importance and it becames ever more important if it is a two-legged robot. So the control system used in such robots should be used wisely. A motion control system should control the motion of the body so that leg movements automatically generate the desired body movements.

A cotrol system also needs to control gait i.e., the sequence of supporting leg configurations and foot placement (motion of the nonsupporting legs) to find the next foothold. While walking, the movement of the body which rests on the supporting legs should be considered and properly controlled

Gaid, which determines the sequence of supporting leg configurarions durring movement, is devided into two class:
i.   Periodic gaits: They repeat the same sequence of supporting leg configurarions
ii.  Nonperiodic or free gaits: They do not have any periodicity in their gait pattern

The number of different gaits depends on the number of legs.

4. Underwater Robots

Camera-equipped underwater robots seve many purposes including tracking of fish and searching for sunken ships

5. Flying Robots

Flying robots have been used effectively in military maneuvers, and often mimix rhe movements of insects.

6. Robot Vision

Vision-based Sensors
Vision is our most powerful sense. It provides us with an enormous amount of information about the environment and enables rich, intelligent interaction in dynamic environments. It is therefore not suprising that agreat deal of effort has been devoted to providing machines with sensors that mimic the capabilities of the human vision system. The first step in this process is the creation of the sensing devices that capture the same raw information light that the human vision system users The two current tecnologies for creating vision sensors are CCD and CMOS. These sensors have specific limitations in performance when compared to the human eye.

7. Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science and engineering that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include control, planning and scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer quwstions, handwriting, speech, and facial recognition. As such, it has become an wngineering discipline, focused on providing solutions to real-life problems, sofware applications, traditional startegy games like computer chess, and other video games.

Computational Intelligence involves iterative development or learning (e.g, parameter tuning in connectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical data and is associated with nonsymbolic AI, scruffy AI, and soft computing. Methods mainly include:
- Neural networks: systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities
- Fuzzy systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, have been widely used in modern industrial and consumer product ontrol systems
- Evolutionary computation: applies biologically inspired concepts such as populations, mutation, and survival of the fittest to generate increasingly better solutions to the problem. These menthods most notably divide into evolutionary algorithms (e.g., genetic algoriths) and swarm intelligence (e.g., ant algorithms).

8. Industrial Automation

Automation, which in Greek means self-dictated, is the use of control systems, such as computers, to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. In the scope of indistrialization, it is a step beyond mechaniztion. Where as mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for huan sensory and metal requirements as well.
Image Saurce: book of ROBOTICS, Appin Knowledge Solutions
Retyped from book of ROBOTICS, Appin Knowledge Solutions
Image Saurce: www.abebooks.com
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